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Books and Documents

The
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT
OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY
IN THE WORLD WAR




VOLUME II

ADMINISTRATION
AMERICAN
EXPEDITIONARY
FORCES





PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF
MAJ. GEN. M. W. IRELAND
The Surgeon General

By

COLONEL JOSEPH H. FORD,M. C.





UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE :  1927


ADDITIONAL COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT
$3.40 PER COPY


LETTER OF TRANSMISSION


I have the honor to submit herewith a portion of the history of the
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE
WORLD WAR. The portion submitted is Volume II, and is entitled "ADMINISTRATION, AMERICAN
EXPEDITIONARY FORCES."

              M. W. IRELAND,
    Major General, the Surgeon General.

The SECRETARY OF WAR.


MAJ. GEN. MERRITTE W. IRELAND, M. C., CHIEFSURGEON, A. E. F., MAY 1, 1918, TO OCTOBER 9, 1918


     Lieut. Col. FRANK W. WEED,M. C., Editor in Chief

LOY MCAFEE,A. M., M. D., Assistant Editor in Chief

            EDITORIAL BOARD a

Col. BAILEY K. ASHFORD, M.C.
Col. FRANK BILLINGS, M. C.
Col. THOMAS R. BOGGS, M.C.
Col. GEORGE E. BREWER, M.C.
Col. W. P. CHAMBERLAIN, M. C.
Col. C. F. CRAIG, M. C.
Col. HAVEN EMERSON, M. C.
Brig. Gen. JOHN M. T. FINNEY,M. D.
Col. JOSEPH H. FORD, M. D.
Lieut. Col. FIELDING H. GARRISON,M. D.
Col. H. L. GILCHRIST, M. C.
Brig. Gen. JEFFERSON R. KEAN,M. D.
Lieut. Col. A. G. LOVE, M. C.
Col. CHARLES LYNCH, M. C.
Col. JAMES F. MCKERNON,M. C.
Col. R. T. OLIVER, D. C.
Col. CHARLES R. REYNOLDS,M. C.
Col. THOMAS W. SALMON, M.C.
Lieut. Col. G. E. DE SCHWEINITZ,M. C.
Col. J. F. SILER, M. C.
Brig. Gen. W. S. THAYER, M. D.
Col. A. D. TUTTLE, M. C.
Col. WILLIAM H. WELCH, M.C.
Col. E. P. WOLFE, M. C.
Lieut. Col. CASEY A. WOOD,M. C.
Col. HANS ZINSSER, M. C.


         aThe highest rank held during the World War has been used in the case of each officer.



Preface
Introduction

SECTION I. ORGANIZATIONAND ADMINISTRATION OF THECHIEF SURGEON'SOFFICE

CHAPTER
I. General organization and developmentof the chief surgeon's office
II. Representation of the MedicalDepartment on the general staff, A. E. F.
III. Liaison of the MedicalDepartment, United States Army, with the medical services of the Allies
IV. The administration division
V. The personnel division
VI. The dental section
VII. The nursing section;reconstruction aides
VIII. The division of sanitationand inspection
IX. The division of laboratoriesand infectious diseases
X. The division of laboratoriesand infectious diseases continued-Central Medical Department laboratory
XI. The division of laboratoriesand infectious diseases continued-The section of laboratories; technicalwork of laboratories
XII. The division of laboratoriesand infectious diseases continued-Section of infectious diseases; sectionof wound bacteriology
XIII. The division of laboratoriesand infectious diseases continued-Section of water supplies; section offood and nutrition; museum and art section; laboratory of surgical research
XIV. The division of hospitalization
XV. The division of hospitalizationcontinued-Hospital construction; procurement
XVI. The division of hospitalizationcontinued-Hospitalization of sick and wounded
XVII. The division of hospitalizationcontinued-Medical Department transportation
XVIII. The division of hospitalizationcontinued-The professional services
XIX. The finance and supplydivision
XX. The veterinary service

SECTIONII. MEDICAL ACTIVITIESOF TERRITORIALSECTIONS

SECTION III.HOSPITALS

CHAPTER
XXI. Hospital centers
XXII. A typical hospitalcenter
XXIII. Other hospital centers
XXIV. Base hospitals
XXV. Camp hospitals

                  SECTION IV. EVACUATIONOF PATIENTS TO THEUNITED STATES;DISCONTINUANCE OF HOSPITALS

CHAPTER
XXVI. Evacuation of patientsto the United States
XXVII. Discontinuance ofhospitals

SECTION V. THEARMY OF OCCUPATIONIN GERMANY

CHAPTER
XXVIII. The American forcesin Germany
XXIX. Department of sanitationand public health, German occupied territory

SECTIONVI. MEDICALDEPARTMENTACTIVITIES,AMERICAN FORCESIN FRANCE

Appendix:
    Report on organization, equipment, and functions of the Medical Department
    Circulars promulgated by the chief surgeon, A. E. F.
    The more important memoranda promulgated by the division of laboratories and infectious diseases, A. E. F.
    The more important forms used in the laboratory service, A. E. F.

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE
1. Personnel, MedicalDepartment, A. E. F., January 11, 1919
2. Personnel, MedicalDepartment, A. E. F., July 12, 1919
3. Consolidated dailyfield report of Medical Department personnel, S. O. S., August 31, 1919
4. Types and numbersof laboratories in operation in the American Expeditionary Forces, May,1917, to April, 1919

LIST OF PLATES

FRONTISPIECE. Maj.Gen. M. W. Ireland, M. C., chief surgeon, A. E. F., May 1, 1918, to October9, 1918
PLATE
1. Brig. Gen. Alfred E.Bradley, M. C., chief surgeon, A. E. F., to April 30, 1918
2. Brig. Gen. Walter D.McCaw, M. C., chief surgeon, A. E. F., October 10, 1918, to July 15, 1919

LIST OF CHARTS

CHART
I. Showing organizationof chief surgeon's office, A. E. F., March 6, 1918
II. Scheme for organizationof Medical Department, A. E. F., corrected to November 11, 1918
III. Scheme for organizationof division of sanitation and inspection, chief surgeon's office, A. E.F.

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE
Maj. Gen. Merritte W. Ireland,M.C., Chief Surgeon, A. E. F., May 1, 1918, to October 9, 1918
1. Lines of communication,A. E. F., showing also the sections comprising the Services of Supply -Facing
2. Wing B, of group of threemain buildings, general headquarters, A. E. F., in which the office ofthe chief surgeon, A. E. F., was located prior to its removal to Tours.This wing also was the location, subsequently, of the medical group, G-4,general staff, A. E. F.
3. Headquarters, Services ofSupply, A. E. F., at Tours. The chief surgeon's office occupied practicallythe entire first floor of the wing on the right
4. Building in Tours in whichthe finance and accounting division of the chief surgeon's office was located
5. Ground plan, headquarters,division of laboratories, A. E. F., and Central Medical Department Laboratory,Dijon
6. Floor plan of the officeof the director, division of laboratories, A. E. F.
7. Central Medical DepartmentLaboratory, Dijon. The main building is in the center of the background
8. Diagram showing types oflaboratories in the American Expeditionary Forces
9. Pathological room in the laboratory,Vichy hospital center
10. Bacteriological laboratory,Vichy hospital center
11. Field laboratory car
12. Front of interior of fieldlaboratory car
13. Rear of interior of fieldlaboratory car
14. Interior of field laboratorycar, showing water still, autoclave, and sterilizers
15. Transportable laboratoryin eight chests
16. Chests of transportable laboratoryopened to show contents
17. Chests of transportable laboratoryopened to show contents
18. Chests of transportable laboratoryopened to show contents
19. Chests of transportable laboratoryopened to show contents
20. Showing preparations forshipping portable laboratories from the Central Medical Department Laboratory,Dijon
21. General layout of hospitalunit, type A (base hospital) with wards 20 feet wide. Demountable buildings
22. General layout of hospitalunit, type A, with wards 20 feet wide. Permanent buildings
23. General layout of hospitalunit, type A, with wards 36 feet wide
24. Ward building (20 feet wide),hospital unit, type A. Demountable
25. Ward building (36 feet wide),hospital unit, type A
26. Administration building,hospital unit, type A
27. Nurses' quarters, hospitalunit, type A
28. Nurses' dining room and kitchen,hospital unit, type A; for use with demountable buildings
29. Officers' quarters and diningroom, hospital unit, type A; for use with demountable buildings
30. Officers' quarters, hospitalunit, type A; for use with permanent type of buildings
31. Receiving and evacuatinghall, hospital unit, type A; for use with demountable buildings
32. Receiving and evacuatinghall and patients' bath, hospital unit, type A. Permanent type
33. Patients' bath, hospitalunit, type A, for use with demountable buildings
34. Recreation hall, hospitalunit, type A; permanent building type
35. Nurses recreation club, hospitalunit, type A; demountable
36. Laboratory and morgue, hospitalunit, type A; demountable
37. Operating and X-ray building,hospital unit, type A; demountable
38. Operating, X-ray, and clinicbuilding, hospital unit, type A
39. Dispensary and clinic building,hospital unit, type A; demountable
40. Clinic and surgical dressingsbuilding, hospital unit, type A
41. Patients' kitchen, hospitalunit, type A; temporary type
42. Patients' kitchen and dininghalls, hospital unit, type A; permanent type
43. Patients' dining hall, hospitalunit, type A, for use only when demountable buildings were furnished
44. Quartermaster's storehouse,hospital unit, type A; demountable
45. Quartermaster's and medicalstorehouse, hospital unit, type A; permanent
46. Barrack building, hospitalunit, type A; demountable
47. Personnel dining hall, hospitalunit, type A; demountable
48. Medical storehouse, hospitalunit, type A; demountable
49. Disinfector building, hospitalunit, type A; demountable
50. Ablution building, hospitalunit, type A; demountable
51. General layout, hospitalcenter, Bazoilles
52. General layout, hospitalcenter, Mars
53. General layout, hospitalunit, type B (camp hospital)
54. Ward, hospital unit, typeB
55. Administration building andofficers' quarters, hospital unit, type B
56. Patients' mess, hospitalunit, type B
57. Bath and disinfector, hospitalunit, type B
58. Operating and clinic building,hospital unit, type B
59. General layout, hospitalunit, type C (convalescent camp), 2,000 beds
60. Administration and clinicbuilding, hospital unit, type C
61. Officers' quarters and messhall, hospital unit, type C
62. Standard barrack, hospitalunit, type C
63. Kitchen, hospital unit, typeC
64. Quartermaster building, hospitalunit, type C
65. Shops and disinfector building,hospital unit, type C
66. Laundry building, hospitalunit, type C
67. Dining hall, hospital unit,type C
68. Bathhouse, hospital unit,type C
69. Venereal and skin clinic,hospital unit, type C
70. Perspective of a Bessonneautent in a two-tent unit
71. Perspective of a Bessonneautent, showing framing and double walls
72. Plan of a two-tent (Bessonneau)ward
73. Showing heating arrangementsin a Bessonneau tent
74. Perspective of a marqueetent ward, showing a unit of three tents
75. Plan of a marquee tent wardof three tents
76. Showing heating arrangementsin a marquee tent ward
77. Perspective of closet ina marquee tent, showing construction
78. Plan of a two-tent ward,United States hospital ward tent
79. Outline map of France showing the location of thevarious fixed hospitals of the American Expeditionary Forces 
80. American Red Cross MilitaryHospital No. 21, Paignton, Devon, England
81. American Red Cross ConvalescentHospital No. 101, Lingfield, Surrey, England (for officers)
82. Hospital train obtained fromthe French, at Base Hospital No. 9, Chateauroux
83. French hospital train, withcontinental type of carriage
84. Interior of one of our hospitaltrains (British built)
85. Hospital train at Base HospitalNo. 27, Angers
86. Entraining class D patientsat Base Hospital No. 30, Royat
87. Map of Allerey hospital centerand vicinity
88. Reservoir, Allerey hospitalcenter
89. Exterior view of warehouse,Allerey hospital center
90. Interior of receiving ward,Allerey hospital center
91. Delousing apparatus, Allereyhospital center
92. Clothing preparatory to delousingprocess, Allerey hospital center
93. Interior of one of the quartersfor enlisted men, Allerey hospital center
94. Heating apparatus for patients'baths, Allerey hospital center
95. An operating room, Allereyhospital center
96. Sterilization room, Allereyhospital center
97. A surgical ward, Allereyhospital center
98. A psychiatric ward, Allereyhospital center
99. Eye and ear clinic in oneof the hospitals, Allerey hospital center
100. Center medical laboratory,Allerey hospital center
101. View of Bazoilles hospitalcenter
102. Covered walk connectingthe wards at Base Hospital No. 18, Bazoilles hospital center
103. Airplane view, Beau Deserthospital center
104. Beau Desert hospital center,showing railway facilities
105. An operating room, Beaunehospital center
106. A view of part of Kerhuonhospital center
107. A view of part of Limogeshospital center
108. General view of Mars hospitalcenter, looking northeast from tower at west end of center
109. One of the operating rooms,Mars hospital center
110. View of convalescent camp(east end) looking north from water tower, Mars hospital center
111. A view of part of Mesveshospital center, during the construction period
112. A row of wards, Mesveshospital center, during construction period
113. Rock quarry, used in constructionof Mesves hospital center
114. Base hospital, No. 99,Hyeres, Riviera hospital center
115. Base hospital No. 93, Cannes,Riviera hospital center
116. Evacuation Hospital No.49, Menton, Riviera hospital center
117. Airplane view, Savenayhospital center
118. Hotel des Bains, part ofVichy hospital center
119. Hotel Lilas, part of Vichyhospital center
120. A ward, Base Hospital No.1, Vichy hospital center
121. Officers' mess at the HotelSevigne, Vichy hospital center
122. Casino, used as the officers'club, Vichy hospital center
123. Building used as the noncommissionedofficers' club, Vichy hospital center
124. Two small hotels used forthe enlisted men, Vichy hospital center
125. Base Hospital No. 3, Vauclaire
126. Airplane view of Base HospitalNo. 7, Joue-les-Tours
127. Base Hospital No. 9, Chateauroux
128. A general medical ward,exterior, Base Hospital No. 12, operating British General Hospital No.18
129. Exterior, surgical ward,Base Hospital No. 12
130. Base Hospital No. 15, Chaumont
131. Base Hospital No. 17, Dijon
132. A view of part of BaseHospital No. 21, operating British General Hospital No. 12, Rouen
133. A view of part of the temporarybuildings, Base Hospital No. 27, Angers
134. Base Hospital No. 28, partof Limoges hospital center
135. Surgical building, BaseHospital No. 29
136. Airplane view, Base HospitalNo. 30, Royat
137. Base Hospital No. 33, Portsmouth,England
138. Contagious disease ward,Base Hospital No. 40, Sarisbury Court, Hants, England
139. A view of the grounds,Base Hospital No. 41, St. Denis, Paris
140. View of part of Base HospitalNo. 43, Blois
141. Base Hospital No. 57, Paris
142. Base Hospital No. 85, Paris
143. Part of Base Hospital No.94, Pruniers
144. Main building, Base HospitalNo. 103, Dijon
145. Main kitchen, Base HospitalNo. 106, Beau Desert hospital center
146. Interior, detachment mess,Base Hospital No. 106
147. Base Hospital No. 236,Carnac
148. Camp Hospital No. 2, Bassens
149. Camp Hospital No. 4, Joinville
150. A ward interior, Camp HospitalNo. 7, Humes
151. Camp Hospital No. 22, Langres
152. Camp Hospital No. 24, Langres
153. Interior, officers' ward,Camp Hospital No. 28, Nevers
154. A group of wards, CampHospital No. 29, Le Courneau
155. Camp Hospital No. 33, CampPontanezen
156. Camp Hospital No. 41, Is-sur-Tille
157. Camp Hospital No. 42, Bar-sur-Aube
158. Camp Hospital No. 45, Aix-les-Baines
159. Camp Hospital No. 46, Landerneau
160. Camp Hospital No. 48, Recey-sur-Ource
161. One of the buildings, CampHospital No. 56, Avoine
162. Camp Hospital No. 59, Issoudun
163. Camp Hospital No. 64, Chatillon-sur-Seine
164. Camp Hospital No. 68, Bourges
165. Camp Hospital No. 72, Chateau-du-Loir