COLLEGE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES,a AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES UNIVERSITY, BEAUNE, COTE D’OR, FRANCE
The American Expeditionary Forces University, of which the College of Medical Sciences was a department, was organized and operated under the control of the fifth section of the general staff, general headquarters, which section controlled all educational work in the American Expeditionary Forces. 1 The general plan of the university was formed in January, 1919, by the general staff officer in charge of educational subsection, G-5, and the Army educational commission of the Young Men’s Christian Association. On February 8, 1919, Beaune was definitely selected as the site of the university, and work was immediately begun to organize the faculty and courses, and to plan for equipment. In February authority was issued for the establishment of the American Expeditionary Forces University, including, in the following words, the medical and other technical departments: 2
4. Since the above university opportunities are of graduate character and are therefore available only to selected men of high educational qualifications, an American Expeditionary Forces educational center will be established to provide college and technical training beyond that offered at division educational centers. Students will enroll for a period of three months. Detailed instructions for the assignment of members of the American Expeditionary Forces to this educational center will be issued from these headquarters.
The College of Medical Sciences included departments of medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and pharmacy, each having a director and a corps of instructors. 1
The requirements for admission were the same as those of class A schools of corresponding character in the United States. The undergraduate courses were designed to aid the student in preparing to return to his respective school for completion of his course under the most favorable circumstances and within the shortest possible time. To this end a schedule for a complete four-year course was drawn up for each of the professional departments (medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine). Students who preferred to do intensive work for three months in one or two subjects, instead of securing the advantage of the three months’ training in all the courses offered in the curriculum for the year to which they were eligible, were given such opportunity.
Post-graduate courses were arranged for men having the degree of doctor of medicine, which were taken in French universities at Lyon, Paris, Marseille, and Bordeaux. A course in laboratory methods and technique for postgraduate work were given at the central Medical Department laboratory at Dijon.
a Unless otherwise indicated the statements of fact made herein arc based on: History of the College of Medical Sciences, A. E. F. University, Beaune (Cote D’Or), France. Copy on file, Historical Division, S. G. O.
The facilities of the school of medical sciences included Camp Hospital No. 107, formerly Base Hospital No. 77, and Camp Hospital No. 108, formerly Base Hospital No. 97; a department of sanitation, including fifteen regimental infirmaries; and a venereal prophylaxis department.
The College of Medical Sciences, together with all the other departments of the university, was closed on June 7, 1919, and all records were turned over to the registrar.
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE
The faculty of this department consisted of the director and 17 commissioned assistants, two of the latter being Sanitary Corps officers, one Infantry, and one Signal Corps. The following is an outline of the course:
OUTLINE OF COURSE
The course in anatomy will include gross anatomy, histology, and embryology. The work in gross anatomy will comprise three hours of didactic work per week for the first-year students. The course will be available for first-year dental students also.
The course in histology will be divided into one hour of didactic instruction and five hours of laboratory work per week. This course will be given to first-year medical, dental, pharmacy, and veterinary students.
The embryology work will include one hour of lecture and two hours of laboratory work per week. A study of human embryo and its envelopes will be taken up. Work on the early stages will be based on the chick.
There will be six hours per week, two hours of lecture and four hours of laboratory work.
The course in pathology will consist of two lecture hours and four hours of laboratory work per week.
ORGANIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
This course will consist of didactic instruction and four hours of laboratory work per week.
The course in physiology will include two hours of didatic instruction and three hours of laboratory work. The work will be given to first-year medical, dental, and pharmacy students.
DEPARTMENT OF DENTISTRY
The dental department was organized coincidentally with the department of medicine, and the faculty consisted of the director and 10 commissioned dental officers who, besides instructing the students, were operators in the dental infirmary conducted for the benefit of all the officers and enlisted men at this post. The extent of their work may be realized from the figures that show that from March 10 to March 31, the total number of patients treated was 867 and the number of sittings totaled 1,420.
The following outline shows the subjects covered and the relationship with other departments:
COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY - OUTLINE OF COURSES
Predental course. - Inorganic chemistry, qualitative analysis, zoology (given in connection with courses in College of Science).
Course of first-year dental students. - Anatomy, physiology, embryology, bacteriology, histology, physiologic chemistry, organic chemistry (given in connection with courses in first-year medicine in College of Medicine).
Course for dental students. - Dental materia medica and therapeutics, operative technique, prosthetic technique, operative lectures and clinical demonstrations, prosthetic lectures and clinical demonstrations, radiography lectures and clinical demonstrations, oral surgery lectures and clinical demonstrations, local anesthesia lectures and clinical demonstrations (given at dental section of the College of Medicine).
COURSES FOR POSTGRADUATES
Selective courses suitable for graduates in dentistry were arranged in the subjects stated above, instruction being given by lectures and demonstrations.
DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
The veterinary department was first organized on a four-year basis, but after considering the lack of opportunity to give clinical instruction and advanced work, it was decided to give only first-year work, and to transfer all students of the second, third, and fourth years and postgraduate students to some foreign institution. The faculty consisted of the director and five commissioned veterinary officers. An outline of the course follows:
VETERINARY DEPARTMENT - OUTLINE OF COURSE
Veterinary Physiology. - Physiologywill be taught by means of lectures and recitations. The normal functions of the different systems (circulatory, respiratory, etc.), will be presented with due regard to a complete knowledge of the subjects covered. It is anticipated that the knowledge of the course will comply with the standards of veterinary colleges in the United States.
Anatomy (veterinary). - Anatomywill be taught by lectures and practical work in a laboratory, the course consisting of five hours, one hour lecture period and two laboratory periods of two hours each week. The 12 weeks’ course has been divided in osteology, covering a period of 5 weeks; arthrology, covering 1 week; and myology, covering 6 weeks.
Pharmacology. - Pharmacologywill be taught by a course of lectures consisting of one lecture, one hour a week, for a period of 12 weeks. The course of lectures will cover the following outline: Definition, textbook, nomenclature; pharmaceutical arithmetic; pharmaceutical operations; official preparations.
Preliminary medicine. - Preliminary medicine will consist in a course of lectures of one hour per week for 12 weeks. The course of lectures will cover the following outlines: Fundamental principles of diagnosis, 6 hours; language of medicine, 6 hours.
DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY
The faculty of the department consisted of 7 commissioned officers, 4 of whom were of the Medical Corps; 2, Infantry; and 1, Sanitary Corps. The requirements for entrance were four years’ high school or preparatory work. As given it covered only first-year subjects and included inorganic chemistry, physiology, bacteriology, histology, materia-medica, and pharmacy. Advanced students and those desiring to do postgraduate work were sent to French universities to pursue their studies.
(1) Bulletin No. 91, headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces University, Part I, The Catalogue. Beaune, Cote D’Or, France, May 16, 1919. Published by order of Colonel Reeves, president. On file, Historical Section, General Staff, G-5, Records, 1440-5
(2) G. O. No. 30, G. H. Q., A. E. F., February 13, 1919, par. 4.