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MEDICAL DEPARTMENT
UNITED STATES ARMY
IN WORLD WAR II


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

PREVENTIVE MEDICINE IN WORLD WAR II

Volume VIII

CIVIL AFFAIRS/MILITARY GOVERNMENT
PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIVITIES

Prepared and published under the direction of
Lieutenant General RICHARD R. TAYLOR
The Surgeon General, United States Army

Editor in Chief
Colonel JOHN LADA, MSC, USA

Editor forPreventive Medicine
EBBE CURTISS HOFF, Ph.D., M.D.

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1976


PREVENTIVE MEDICINE IN WORLD WAR II

Advisory Editorial Board

Brigadier General JAMES STEVENS SIMMONS, USA (dec.),Chairman,1948-54
Brigadier General STANHOPE BAYNE-JONES, USAR (Ret.) (dec.),Chairman, 1955-70
THOMAS B. TURNER, M.D., Chairman

JOHN E. GORDON, M.D.                                                         ELLIOTT S. A. ROBINSON, M.D. (dec.)
WILLIAM A. HARDENBERGH, B.E. (dec).                         PAUL F. RUSSELL, M.D.
ANTHONY J. LANZA, M.D. (dec.)                                       DOUGLASS W. WALKER, M.D.

Colonel TOM F. WHAYNE, MC, USA (Ret.)
EBBE CURTIS HOFF, Ph. D., M.D., Editorial Director (exofficio)
Colonel JOHN LADA, MSC, USA (ex officio)

The Historical Unit, United States Army Medical Department

Colonel JOHN LADA, MSC, USA, Director
CHARLES J. SIMPSON, Deputy Director
MARY C. EFDIMIS, Chief, Administrative Branch
MARTHA R. STEPHENS, Chief, Editorial Branch
RODERICK M. ENGERT, Chief, General Reference and ResearchBranch
ROSE C. ENGELMAN, Ph. D., Chief, Historians Branch
GERALDINE B. SITES, Public Affairs Officer

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 75-600082


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. GovernmentPrinting Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price$15
Stock Number 008-023-00050-6


CIVIL AFFAIRS/MILITARY GOVERNMENT

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIVITIES


Contents

FOREWORD
PREFACE
AUTHORS PAGE

Part I.     PURPOSE AND DEVELOPMENTOF PLANS

Chapter I.    Problems of Civilian Health Under War Conditions-General Concepts and Origins(Thomas B. Turner, M.D., and Ira V. Hiscock, M.P.H., M.D.)

Section I.     Concept and Development

               Definition
               Role of Public Health
               Genesis of Civil Affairs Health Activities in World War II
               Extent of Civil Public Health Activities
               Phases of Military Government and Civil Affairs
               General Features of the Civilian Health Programs

Section II.     Development and Organizationof Civil Public Health at War Department Level

              Liaison With the Provost Marshal General's Office
               Civil Affairs Division, War Department Special Staff
               Civil Affairs Division Supply Board, Surgeon General's Office
               Civil Public Health Division, Preventive Medicine Service
               Summary

Chapter II.    Selection and Training of Civil Public Health Personnel (Thomas B. Turner,M.D.)

               Special Training
               Civil Affairs Training Schools
               Precombat Training in Theaters of Operations
               Personnel Shortages in the European Theater
               Selection and Assignment of Personnel for Military  Government inGermany
               Personnel for the Far East
               Civil Affairs Holding and Staging Area
               Summary

Chapter III.   Medical Supplies for Civil Health Programs (Thomas B. Turner, M.D.)

               General Considerations
               Early Planning
               Storage and Distribution in Italy
               Establishment of ENDIMEA
               Control of Narcotic Drugs
               Summary

Part II.     THE AMERICAS

Chapter IV.    The United States, Its Territories and Possessions, and the PanamaCanalZone (Stanhope Bayne-Jones, M.D., Ira V. Hiscock, M.P.H., M.D.,and Major General Morrison C. Stayer, MC, USA (Ret.))

Section I.     The United States

               Sanitation and Disease Control Outside Military Areas
               Maneuvers
               Evacuation of the Japanese From the West Coast, 1942

Section II.     Alaska

               Historical Note
               The Army Buildup and Its Responsibilities for Public Health
               War-Period Activities and Disaster Relief Plans and Preparations

Section III.     Hawaii

               Defense Preparations and Public Health
               Attack on Pearl Harbor
               Summary

Section IV.     U.S. Possessions andBases in the Caribbean Area

               Historical Note
               General Characteristics of Civil Affairs and Military GovernmentPublic Health Activities
               The Caribbean Defense Command
               The Panama Canal Department and the Health Department of the PanamaCanal
               The Puerto Rican Department
               The Antilles Department
               Communicable Diseases and Their Control
               Cooperating Organizations
               Summary

Chapter V.    The South Atlantic Area (Colonel George E. Leone, MC, USA (Ret.))

               Establishment of the Theater
               Civil Public Health
               Foreign Quarantine
               Summary

Chapter VI.    The North Atlantic Area (Captain William D. Church, MSC)

               Canada
               Newfoundland
               Greenland
               Iceland
               Summary

Part III.     THE MEDITERRANEAN

Chapter VII.    The Middle East Countries(Brigadier General Crawford F. Sams, MC, USA(Ret.))

               Historical Note
               Relationships With Health Agencies
               Special Problems and Their Management
               Summary

Chapter VIII.    French North Africa (1942-44)(First Lieutenant Raymond E. Finocchiaro,MSC)

               The Civil Affairs Problem
               The Role of Civil Public Health
               Public Health and Sanitation
               Communicable Diseases
              Summary

Chapter IX.    Sicily and Italy (Thomas B. Turner, M.D.)

Section I.     The Italian Campaign

               Background
               Planning for the Occupation of Italy
               Invasion of Sicily-Region I
               Invasion of the Mainland-Region II
               Naples and Region III
               The Anzio Beachhead
               Foggia and Region IV
               Sardinia-Region VI
               Northern Italy

Section II.     Problems and Lessonsof the Italian Campaign

               Transportation
               Personnel
               Communicable Diseases
               Civilian Health Activities

Chapter X.    The Balkans and Hungary (Richard T. Shackelford, M.D.)

               Functions of U.S. Army Medical Officers on Allied Control Commissions
               Bulgaria
               Romania
               Hungary
               Summary

Part IV.     EUROPE

Chapter XI.    The United Kingdom (Pauline B. Vivette)

               Historical Note
               Progression of Events
               Problems of the Civil-Military Public Health Activity
               Summary

Chapter XII.    Planning and Preparations for the European Theater of Operations(Stanhope Bayne-Jones, M.D., and Thomas B. Turner,M.D.)

               Early Planning
               Establishment of G-5 SHAEF
               General and Special Staffs for Civil Affairs
               Medical and Sanitation Supply
               The SHAEF Missions

Chapter XIII.    The European Theater of Operations (1944-45) (Stanhope Bayne-Jones,M.D., and Colonel Edward J. Dehné, MC, USA)

               The Campaign in Northwest Europe
               Public Health Organizations
               The German Counteroffensive in the Ardennes
               The SHAEF Missions
               The Rhineland Campaign
               The Defeat of Germany
               The Occupation of Germany
               Summary

Chapter XIV.    Austria (Colonel Charles J. Farinacci, MC, USA (Ret.))

               Political and Military Background
               Organization and Planning for Civil Public Health
               Special Problems of Civil Public Health
               Summary

Part V.     THE PACIFIC

Chapter XV.    Australia and New Zealand (Lieutenant Colonel Eugene T. Lyons,MSC)

Section I.     Australia

               Introduction
               The Land and the People
               U.S. Army Command Structure
               Communicable Diseases
               Sanitation
               Food Inspection
               Miscellaneous Civil Affairs
               Summary

Section II.     New Zealand

               Introduction
               The Nation
               U.S. Army Command Structure
               Communicable Diseases and Sanitation
               Food Procurement and Inspection
               Miscellaneous Civil Affairs

Chapter XVI.    The Philippines and Okinawa(Thomas B. Turner, M.D.)

Section I.     The Philippine Islands

               Background
               Philippine Civil Affairs Units
               The Leyte Campaign
               Medical Care of Civilians in U.S. Army Installations
               The Luzon Campaign
               Manila

Section II.     Okinawa

               Background
               Combat Phase

Part VI.     ASIA

Chapter XVII.    China-Burma-India Theater (Kirk T. Mosley, M.D., and CaptainDarrell G. McPherson, MSC, AUS)

               Organizational Background
               Civil Public Health Problems
               Disease Problems
               Closing of the Theaters
               Summary

Chapter XVIII.    Japan and Korea (Thomas B. Turner, M.D.)

Section I.     Japan

               Plans for Invasion of Japan
               Personnel Planning
               The Unopposed Occupation of Japan-Military Government Aspects
               Broad Health Programs Developed Under SCAP Direction
               Specific Health Problems
               Medical Care Problems
               Conclusions Regarding Japan

Section II.     Korea

               Civil Public Health
               Health Problems and Programs
               Evaluation of Personnel and Administrative Problems
 
 

Illustrations

Figure

 1.     Col.Ira V. Hiscock, SnC
 2.     ThomasB. Turner, M.D., formerly Colonel, Medical Corps
 3.     Studentsat the School of Military Government, Charlottesville, Va., August1943
 4.    AmericanSchool Center, Shrivenham, England, 1944
 5.    Regionalmedical supply warehouse, Rome, Italy, 1944
 6.    Brig.Gen. James Stevens Simmons, USA
 7.    Maj.Gen. George C. Dunham, USA
 8.    Brig.Gen. Condon C. McCornack, USA
 9.    Brig.Gen. Edgar King, USA
10.    Maj. Gen.Morrison C. Stayer, USA
11.    Medicalpersonnel involved in malaria control on the Madden Road, CanalZone, December 1942
12.    Militaryhospital, Borinquen Field, P.R.
13.    Col. GeorgeE. Leone, MC
14.    Laboratorytechnician at work, 200th Station Hospital, Recife, Brazil, 1944
15.    Braziliancivilians spray mosquito-infested area as precaution againstmalaria, September 1944
16.    Membersof the 648th Engineer Battalion working on the Alaska Highwayin -37° weather, March 1942
17.    Eskimopatients at the 191st Station Hospital, Angmagssalik, Greenland
18.    Maj. FrankA. Todd, VC, obtaining a sample of milk for laboratory analysis
19.    Army veterinariansexamining a sheep suffering from jagziekte, a chroniclung disease
20.    Maj. FrankA. Todd, VC, receiving Legion of Merit from Brig. Gen. Paul R.Hawley, Chief Surgeon, European theater, February 1944
21.    Cairo,Egypt, November 1941
22.    Air viewof the 2748th Station Hospital, Iran, 1943
23.    Tel Aviv,Palestine, a modern Jewish city near the U.S. base at TelLitwinsky
24.    Streetscene in Teheran, Iran, 1943
25.    Egyptianlemonade peddler or "sherbulli" in Cairo, 1943, illustrates theunsanitary methods of food handling encountered by the Allies
26.    U.S. Armymedical personnel inoculate Egyptian civilians for typhus
27.    Brig. Gen.Stanhope Bayne-Jones, MC, in 1944
28.    A nativeyouth suffering from right cervical and submental plague, Jaffa,1943
29.    Nativevegetable market stall in Cairo, 1943
30.    An Arabhut for sorting tobacco in the Algiers area, 1943
31.    Col. WilliamS. Stone, MC, Preventive Medicine Officer, North Africantheater, inspects a louse-infested native in Algeria in 1943
32.    Col. HowardJ. Hutter, MC, Surgeon, Mediterranean Base Section, Oran,Algeria, 1943
33.    An Arabfamily sit on the doorstep of their home near Algiers, 1943
34.    Arab laborerdistributes fertilizer on a potato crop on a farm near Algiers,November 1943
35.    Col. PerrinH. Long, MC, Consultant in Medicine, Allied Force Headquarters
36.    Work partyof Italian prisoners of war digs a drainage ditch for malariacontrol, Mediterranean Base Section, 1943
37.    MedicalSection personnel of the Mediterranean Base Section in Algierstreat Arab children with new insecticide powder designedto kill typhus lice
38.    MilitaryPolice patrol an "off limits" area of Algiers
39.    Brig. Gen.Leon A. Fox, MC
40.    Civiliangirl, shot by Germans while trying to warn Americans of Germanpositions, is carried to an ambulance for evacuation to therear
41.    Four Italianscarry a wounded civilian refugee to a nearby hospital
42.    An Italianchild, wounded in a forward war area, is treated at a Fifth U.S.Army Refugee Center aid station in the Florence area
43.    Col. PaulF. Russell, MC
44.    Col. JohnE. Gordon, MC
45.    AmericanRed Cross-Harvard Field Hospital Unit, assembled in Salisbury,England
46.    Brig. Gen.Paul R. Hawley, MC
47.    An oldmansion served as quarters for the 2d Infantry Regiment, 5thInfantry Division, at County Down, Northern Ireland
48.    The "kitchen"during routine meal preparation at the 10th Station Hospitalin Musgrave Park, Belfast, Northern Ireland 49.   Field demonstration of pump and filter units of portable water purificationapparatus in England, 1943
50.    Medicalward, 110th Station Hospital at Warrington, England, in July 1943
51.    Two Armyposters warning of the danger of venereal disease infection
52.    Lt. Gen.Sir Arthur Edward Grasett, KBE, CB, DSO, MC (British), Assistant Chiefof Staff, G-5 SHAEF
53.    Maj. Gen.Warren F. Draper, USPHS, Chief, Public Health Branch, G-5SHAEF
54.    Col. WilliamL. Wilson, MC, USA, Deputy Chief, Administrative Office,Public Health Branch, G-5 SHAEF
55.    BrigadierThomas F. Kennedy (British), Deputy Chief, Public HealthBranch, G-5 SHAEF
56.    Capt. EdwardJ. Dehné, MC, USA
57.    Saint-Lô,a key city of France, reduced by Allied and German shelling torubble
58.    Belgianrefugee casualty receives treatment at U.S. Army aid station,Ottré, Belgium
59.    Col. JamesP. Pappas, MC, USA
60.    Cathedralat Cologne, Germany, stands among ruins on the banks of theRhine
61.    Bombed-outunderground reservoir at Cologne, Germany
62.    Lt. Col.William H. Riheldaffer, MC, USA
63.    Lt. Col.Charles D. Shields, MC, USA
64.    Lt. Col.John T. Morrison, MC, USA
65.    Americanand German health officials meet in Wiesbaden, Germany, to discuss healthconditions in the American Zone
66.    Germannutrition survey team from the Württemberg-Baden Public Health Officeconducts nutrition examinations at Ulm, Germany
67.    Bordercontrol post established to insure that all persons entering the AmericanZone by rail, road, or water were dusted with DDT powder to control typhus
68.    Power sprayof DDT is applied at displaced persons' camp in Linz, Austria,July 1945
69.    Liquidspraying of bedding to improve sanitation at displaced persons'camp near Linz, Austria, July 1945
70.    The AllgemeinesKrankenhaus (general hospital), Vienna, affiliated withthe University of Vienna Medical School
71.    Militarypersonnel conduct tests and spray for mosquitoes, Queensland,Australia, August 1942
72.    Army preventivemedicine personnel spray a stagnant pond with keroseneguns to destroy mosquito larvae.
73.    Identifyingbreeds of mosquitoes, Brisbane, Australia, January 1943
74.    Laboratorytechnicians at the 3d Medical Laboratory, Brisbane, Australia,determine the results of a Kahn test
75.    Aerialview of the 39th General Hospital, near Auckland, New Zealand
76.    Brig. Gen.Guy B. Denit, MC
77.    Membersof a Philippine Civil Affairs Unit at work in a medical laboratory,Leyte, December 1944
78.    The 6thMalaria Control Unit, Tanauan, Leyte, Philippine Islands, December 1944
79.    Filipinocivilian receives instruction from a medical technician, Leyte, P.I.,December 1944
80.    Drainageditch constructed at Cantaoloopan, Luzon, P.I., by Malaria Control Unit,May 1945
81.    Civiliansof Okinawa, casualties from the battle areas, at the militarygovernment medical aid station, Gushikhan, Okinawa, June1945
82.    CuriousOkinawan children watch an American medical aidman take ablood smear from a native girl at the Military GovernmentInternment Camp, Taira, Okinawa, May 1945
83.    Maj. SeldonO. Baggett, MC, examines natives typical of those who flockeddaily to the 46th Portable Hospital in Hsipaw, Burma, inApril 1946
84.    Rats, caughtalive in Nantien, China, for examination and experimentation,February 1945
85.    Nativesin Calcutta sweep the water's surface clear of vegetation beforespreading oil to kill larvae
86.    Capt. LyleSmith at a demonstration and lecture, 6 November 1945, atthe Shanghai Detention Prison
87.    Brig. Gen.Crawford F. Sams, MC
88.    Japanesecivilian receives typhoid inoculation, Tokyo, 1946
89.    Americanmilitary personnel of the 601st Malaria Control Unit search forsigns of mosquitoes in rice paddies just outside Seoul, Korea

Maps

Number

 1.    AntillesDepartment, 1944
 2.    Locationof departments and major U.S. Army bases, Caribbean DefenseCommand
 3.    SouthAtlantic air routes between Brazil and West Africa
 4.    U.S.Army hospitals in Northwest Canada, 1943-45
 5.    U.S.Army hospitals supporting North Atlantic bases, 1 June 1943
 6.    ServiceCommands, U.S. Army Forces in the Middle East, 15 May 1943
 7.    FrenchNorth Africa areas
 8.    Originaldivision of Italy into Allied Military Government of OccupiedTerritories Regions, 1943
 9.    AlliedControl Commission regional organization, Italy, 1 April 1944
10.    Hungary,Romania, and Bulgaria
11.    UnitedKingdom base sections and surgeons' offices, December 1943
12.    Breakthrough,advance, and rapid enlargement of Civil Affairs PublicHealth operations, 24 July-15 September 1944
13.    AlliedOccupation Zones in Germany
14.    Austriaand adjacent countries from 1919 to 13 March 1938
15.    AlliedZones of Occupation in Austria, 22 April 1946
16.    Routesof communications in Australia
17.    Alliedshipping and airlines from the United States to Australia and NewZealand
18.    Leyte,Philippine Islands
19.    Luzon,Philippine Islands
20.    Okinawa
21.    China-Burma-IndiaTheater
22.    Occupationof Japan by the Sixth and Eighth U.S. Armies, fall 1945
23.    Quarantinestations at principal South Korean ports, fall 1945

Tables

Number

1.    Enrollmentin the School of Military Government, Charlottesville, Va.,1942-43
2.    Braziliancivilians employed by the U.S. Government and hospitalized inU.S. Army hospitals, September 1944-July 1945
3.    Numberof aircraft disinsectized and number of Anopheles gambiae recoveredat major U.S. airbases upon arrival in Brazil from Africa, 1943-45
4.    Typicalpersonnel complement, Philippine Civil Affairs Unit
5.    Estimatedanimal population in South Korea, 1938, 1943, and 1947

Charts

Number

1.    Organizationof U.S. Army responsibility for Civil Public Health, 1943
2.    Medical CivilAffairs relationships and functions, European Theater ofOperations, U.S. Army, 1944
3.    Organizationof the Health Department, Panama Canal, 1940
4.    Organizationof the Office of the Surgeon, Panama Canal Department, 1944


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY

The volumes comprising the official history of the MedicalDepartment of the United States Army in World War II are prepared by TheHistorical Unit, U.S. Army Medical Department, and published under thedirection of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army. These volumes are dividedinto two series: (1) The administrative or operational series; and (2)the professional, or clinical and technical, series. This is one of thevolumes published in the latter series.

VOLUMES PUBLISHED

ADMINISTRATIVE SERIES

Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior
Medical Service in the Mediterranean and Minor Theaters
Medical Supply in World War II
Medical Training in World War II
Organization and Administration in World War II
Personnel in World War II

CLINICAL SERIES

Internal Medicine in World War II:

Vol. I. Activities of Medical Consultants
Vol. II. Infectious Diseases
Vol. III. Infectious Diseases and General Medicine

Neuropsychiatry in World War II:

Vol. I. Zone of Interior
Vol. II. Overseas Theaters

Preventive Medicine in World War II:

Vol. II. Environmental Hygiene
Vol. III. Personal Health Measures and Immunization


Vol. IV. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Chiefly Through Respiratory and Alimentary Tracts
Vol. V. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Through Contact or by Unknown Means
Vol. VI. Communicable Diseases: Malaria
Vol. VII. Communicable Diseases: Arthropodborne Diseases Other Than Malaria
Vol. IX. Special Fields

Surgery in World War II:

Activities of Surgical Consultants, vol. I
Activities of Surgical Consultants, vol. II
General Surgery, vol. II
Hand Surgery
Neurosurgery, vol. I
Neurosurgery, vol. II
Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology
Orthopedic Surgery in the European Theater of Operations
Orthopedic Surgery in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations
Orthopedic Surgery in the Zone of Interior
The Physiologic Effects of Wounds
Thoracic Surgery, vol. I
Thoracic Surgery, vol. II
Vascular Surgery

Miscellaneous:

Blood Program in World War II
Cold Injury, Ground Type
Dental Service in World War II
Physical Standards in World War II
Radiology in World War II
Veterinary Service in World War II
Wound Ballistics