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Books and Documents

Contents

FOREWORD
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

 Chapter

I. The Medical Supply System
          MedicalSupply Between Wars
          Transitionto War, 1939-42
          MedicalSupply for Global War
          LogisticalSupport of Combat Areas

Part I

PROCUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF MEDICAL
SUPPLIES IN THE ZONE OF INTERIOR

II. Central Procurement of Medical Supplies
          MedicalSupply Under the Army Program
          Placing Purchase Orders
          Aidto Manufacturers
          Allocationof Materials
          ManpowerProblems
          Inspectionof Medical Supplies
          ContractTermination

III. Procurement of Problem Items
          SurgicalDressings
          BloodPlasma
          SurgicalInstruments
          Penicillin
          Atabrine
          Spectacles
          ArtificialEye Program
          HearingAids
          OrthopedicEquipment and Supplies
          Booksand Journals
          PropertyExchange Items

IV. Maintenance and Repair Parts
          Evolutionof Maintenance Requirements
          TechnicalTraining
          Supportof Using Organizations
          MaintenanceShop Operations
          Catalogsand Technical Manuals
          MaintenanceAchievement

V. Storage and Distribution of Medical Supplies
          Packingand Packaging Problems
          Storageof Medical Supplies
          Distributionof Medical Supplies to Zone of Interior Installations
          Distributionof Medical Supplies to Theaters of Operations

VI. Medical Supplies Under Lend-Lease
          Roleof the Medical Department in Lend-Lease
          Militaryand Civilian Lend-Lease Requirements
          Reorganizationand Realinement of Responsibilities
          Problemsof Lend-Lease Administration
          OtherRelief Activities

Part II

MEDICAL SUPPLY IN THE WAR AGAINST THE
EUROPEAN AXIS

VII. Outposts and Supply Routes
          NorthAtlantic Bases
          CaribbeanDefense Command
          SouthAtlantic Theater
          Africa-MiddleEast Theater

VIII. Mediterranean Operations
          Planningfor the Invasion of North Africa
          Assaulton North Africa
          Establishmentof Base Section Medical Supply
          TunisiaCampaign
          Formationof Services of Supply
          IslandCampaigns
          Assaulton Italy
          Rome-ArnoCampaign
          SouthernFrance Campaign
          NorthApennines Operation
          PoValley Campaign
          SomeSupply Activities in Review
          Supportof Civilian Populations
          Redeployment

IX. Europe: Preinvasion Buildup in the United Kingdom
          Prelude
          MedicalSupply
          MedicalSupply Depots
          EarlyPreparations for Operation OVERLORD
          MountingConcern Over Supply
          VoorheesMission
          Reorganizationfor Invasion
          Supply in FixedInstallations
          SupplyPoints in Marshaling Areas
          ItemsHaving Special Significance
          FirstU.S. Army Scheme of Supply in Combat
          Approachof D-Day

X. Europe: Combat Operations on the Continent
          MedicalSupply Support on Normandy Beaches
          TheBurgeoning Depot System
          SupplyDivision on the Continent
          Expansionof Depot Operations on the Continent
          ForwardDepots
          RecurringProblems of Medical Supply
          MedicalMaintenance and Spare Parts
          Innovationsin Supply Technique
          SupplyActivities, United Kingdom Base
          MedicalDepot Support of the Advance Into Germany
          SupplyFunctions in 1945
          CivilAffairs Medical Supply

XI. Redeployment and Occupation 
          RedeploymentPlanning
          MedicalSupply Actions
          SupplyActivities in the Occupation
          CivilAffairs
          Summary

Part III 

MEDICAL SUPPLY IN THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN

XII. Pacific Medical Supply in the Period of Defense
          MedicalSupply in the Middle Pacific
          MedicalSupply in the Defense of the Philippines
          MedicalSupply Activities in Australia-1941-42
          Buildupin Australia
          MedicalSupply in the South Pacific
          MedicalSupply Activities in Alaska During the Defense Period

XIII. Offensive Operations: The Solomons to the Palaus
          SouthPacific Area
          NewGuinea Campaigns
          SouthwestPacific Area
          Changesin Theater Supply Procedures
          NewGeorgia Campaign
          AleutianIslands Campaign
          AlaskanGarrison, 1943-44
          BougainvilleCampaign
          CentralPacific Area
          VoorheesMission to the Pacific

XIV. The Philippine Islands Campaign
          Planningand Operation of the Leyte Campaign
          SupplyOperations With X Corps on Leyte
          Changesin the Combat Situation
          MedicalSupply Support of the Luzon Operation
          MedicalSupply in the Southern Philippines 

XV. The China-Burma-India Theater
          Beginningsof Medical Supply Activities in 1942
          Growthof Medical Supply
          MedicalSupply During 1944
          Impactof the Voorhees Mission
          Improvementof the Supply System and Its Procedures
          MajorAccomplishments of 1944
          Progressin 1945

XVI. Okinawa and the Occupation of Japan and Korea

         Supplying the Okinawa Operation
          Planningthe Assault on Japan
          Reorganizationof the Medical Supply System
          PhilippineIslands Base Sections
          Occupationof Japan
          MedicalSupply Operations in Korea
          CivilianAid
          Disposalof Excesses and Surplus Property
          UnusualProblems of Medical Supply
          GeneralConsiderations and Conclusions Regarding Medical Supply in WorldWar II

APPENDIXES

A. Medical Depot Information
B. Medical Lend-Lease Statistics
C. Sample Equipment Lists (Evacuation, Station, and General Hospitals)
C. Sample Equipment Lists (Evacuation, Station, and General Hospitals)(Continued)
C. Sample Equipment Lists (Evacuation, Station, and General Hospitals)(Continued)

 Illustrations

Figure

1. Col. Francis C. Tyng, MC
2. Maj. Gen. James C. Magee
3. Building No. 40, St. Louis Medical Depot
4. Col. Edward Reynolds, MAC
5. Chest, plasma, complete
6. Maj. Gen. Paul R. Hawley
7. Sternberg General Hospital
8. Steps in the production of surgical steel instruments
9. Litter, folding, aluminum
10. Manufacturing transformer components for X-ray machines
11. Woman operating forklift truck
12. Samples of surgical instruments
13. Fitting gas mask spectacles in the European theater before D-day
14. Mobile optical repair unit
15. Interior of mobile optical repair unit
16. Portable optical repair unit loaded on jeep
17. Portable optical repair unit in use at Oahu
18. Fitting a hearing aid
19. Artificial limb-fitting laboratory, Lawson General Hospital
20. Technicians make artificial limbs, Lawson General Hospital
21. Making final adjustment on prosthesis
22. Packing room and book section, Medical Section, Chicago QuartermasterDepot
23. Familiarization of students with 30-ma. Army field X-ray unit
24. Medical Department maintenance and repair tool kit
25. Fifth echelon repair shop, Arsenal Reservation, St. Louis
26. X-ray and electrical shop, Arsenal Reservation, St. Louis
27. Providing adequate protection for tubes and gages on sterilizers
28. Sample board to identify medical instruments
29. Window showing job openings at San Francisco Medical Depot
30. Use of pallets in warehouses
31. Hospital assembly, ready for overseas shipment
32. Portion of New York Port of Embarkation
33. Lend-lease medical supplies for China, unloaded at Calcutta
34. Planes at Tehran carry supplies and equipment to Russia
35. U.S. ship at Khorramshahr ready to discharge supplies
36. Panoramic view of Fort Pepperrell across Quidi Vidi Lake
37. U.S. Army Hospital, Fort Bell, St. David Island
38. Army and Navy area, Greenland Base Command, including the 188th StationHospital
39. Placing medical supplies under tarpaulin, Langhold Dump, Iceland
40. Early, temporary, primitive dispensary in Iceland
41. Lt. Col. George E. Leone, MC
42. Brig. Gen. Crawford F. Sams
43. Loose issue room, Medical Supply Section, Khorramshahr Depot
44. Medical supply issue room, 26th Field Hospital, Khorramabad
45. (A & B) Oran Medical Depot: Supply warehouse, optical shop, and issue section
45. (C)
46. Medical maintenance unit
47. Indigenous personnel unloading supplies at Casablanca
48. Cut-down version of medical maintenance unit
49. Col. Charles F. Shook, MC
50. U.S. lend-lease supplies for the French Army, Casablanca
51. Beach medical maintenance unit
52. Box shop in Oran
53. Landing craft, infantry, unloading supplies
54. Naples Fair Grounds served as a medical depot site
55. Medical supply, 300th General Hospital, Naples
56. Mortar shell cases used at Anzio
57. 12th Medical Depot Company, Fifth U.S. Army
58. Two general hospital assemblies, stored at Oran, replaced those lost in bombingat Bari
59. Walk-in refrigerators at medical depot in Oran
60. U.S. Army Medical Depot, Leghorn
61. (A) Skate conveyors, Medical Depot M-452, Marseille
61. (B)
62. Beach medical supply dump in southern France
63. Medics of the 10th Mountain Division pull sled of medical supplies up theApennines
64. Repair of X-ray generators at depot in Oran
65. Improvised wash sink and operating lamp
66. Italian personnel at Medical Depot 3L50 sort surplus medical supplies
67. Hospital plant at North Mimms, Hertfordshire, included the 1st General Hospital
68. Quartermaster Depot G-50, Taunton, Devonshire, England 
69. Medical Department chests Nos. 1 and 2
70. Brig. Gen. John A. Rogers 
71. Lt. Col. Bryan C. T. Fenton, MC 
72. Breakage of medical supplies on incoming shipments 
73. Brig. Gen. William E. Shambora 
74. Whole blood for the "milk run to the Continent" 
75. Medical care on Omaha Beach, June 1944 
76. Unloading a medical assembly for the 5th General Hospitalat Carentan, France 
77. Advance Platoon, 32d Medical Depot Company, receivingsupplies in France, September 1944 
78. Tank retrievers deliver medical supplies to Depot M-407,at Paris 
79. Loading prepacked medical supplies into 155-mm. shell forairdrop 
80. Captured German tractor and heavy-duty skids move materielat Depot M-402T, Carentan, France 
81. Bargeloads of medical supplies on dockside of Medical DepotM-407 
82. Medical Depot M-409, Li?ge, Belgium 
83. Materials-handling equipment at Medical Depot M-413,Charleroi, Belgium 
84. The 32d Medical Depot Company mobile optical shop at Metz,France, December 1944 
85. Besieged soldiers collect airdropped supplies, Bastogne,Belgium 
86. Medical supply point at Gare St. Lazare, Paris 
87. Repairing field autoclaves at the Medical Maintenance andRepair Shop, Depot M-407 
88. Fabricating spectacles at the base optical shop, Paris,February 1945 
89. Mobile repair teams service forward medical installationsfrom their spare parts truck
90. Whole-blood refrigeration unit installed on a wheeledmachinegun mount 
91. Medics of the 4th Infantry Division, Third U.S. Army, on anassault boat loaded with medical supplies 
92. Central supply of the 48th Field Hospital, Friedrichsfeld,Germany 
93. Medical supplies captured at a Nazi hospital, April 1945 
94. German ammunition boxes were used as packing material 
95. Assembly of Panniers for Civil Affairs channels at DepotM-412 
96. Processing line at Depot M-418, Mourmelon-le-petit 
97. Furth Medical Depot, N?rnberg, operated by 33d MedicalDepot Company 
98. Sorting captured German medical supplies 
99. Tripler General Hospital 
100. 2d Lt. Allan W. Phelps with native workers; and themedical supply warehouse on Christmas Island 
101. 9th Medical Supply Depot, Melbourne, Australia 
102. Lt. Col. Alfonso M. Libasci, MC 
103. Wreck of freighter SS Rufus King near Brisbane,Australia 
104. Transporting supplies and equipment for a portablesurgical hospital, Australia, 1942 
105. Improvised medical jungle kit 
106. Troops loading on Australian corvette for transfer to NewGuinea 
107. Interior of medical supply warehouse in Brisbane,Australia 
108. U.S. Army medical supply depot in New Caledonia, 1942 
109. Individual jungle kit used in the Pacific areas 
110. Storage of medical supplies, 68th Medical Depot Company, Guadalcanal 
111. Native-type warehouses, constructed under direction ofCorps of Engineers 
112. Interior of 3d Medical Supply Depot, Brisbane 
113. Hospital ship Maetsuycker 
114. Deterioration of medical supplies at Oro Bay, New Guinea 
115. Local issue office, 29th Medical Depot Company,Finschhafen, New Guinea
116. Conveyor system used on Morotai Island 
117. Supplies piled on the beach at Attu, Aleutian Islands 
118. Tractor bogged down in mud at Massacre Bay, Attu 
119. Arctic first aid kit 
120. Surgical team arrived via SCAT plane at Bougainville 
121. Medical supply dump on Saipan 
122. Docks at Red Beach, Angaur
123. LST headed for invasion of Leyte 
124. Discharging supplies at the docks at Tacloban 
125. Japanese medical supplies captured on Leyte 
126. Eighth U.S. Army headquarters near Telegrafo, Leyte 
127. Lumber for building at the 34th Medical Depot Company at Tacloban 
128. Issue warehouse, 49th Medical Depot Company, Manila 
129. Medical supplies being packed in an 80-inch howitzer canister 
130. Taking inventory of medical supplies, 41st InfantryDivision, Zamboanga 
131. A tent at the 74th Medical Supply Dump and setting up the74th Medical Base Depot Company, Parang, P.I.
132. Brig. Gen. Robert P. Williams 
133. Col. John M. Tamraz, MC 
134. Pack train fording a river near Nasin, Burma 
135. Native laborers working at the Calcutta Medical Depot 
136. C-47 transports lined up on the airstrip at Myitkyina, Burma
137. Men in a C-47 deliver supplies in the field in Burma 
138. Distribution of medical supplies by the 14th and 25th Medical Depots 
139. Col. George E. Armstrong, MC 
140. Troops head for the beaches in the invasion of Okinawa 
141. Medical supply dump on Okinawa 
142. Transferring cargo to smaller craft for delivery to the beach 
143. General view of docking and incoming ships at Base X port area, Manila
144. Receiving section and warehouse, 49th Medical Depot Company, Quezon City
145. Maintenance Section Shop, 49th Medical Depot Company 
146. Optical Section Shop, 49th Medical Depot Company 
147. Parachute airdrop pack 
148. St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo 
149. Civilian relief supplies at Tacloban, Leyte Island 

Maps

Number

1. Supply routes to Europe, Africa, and the Middle East
2. Medical supply installations in Newfoundland, Greenland, andIceland 
3. Medical supply depots in the Caribbean Defense Command,1941-43 
4. Medical supply depots in North Africa, 1942-43 
5. Medical supply depots in Sicily, July-August 1943 
6. Movement of 4th Medical Supply Depot and 12th Medical DepotCompany in Italy, September-December 1943 
7. Medical supply depots in Italy, January-September 1944 
8. Seventh U.S. Army depots in southern France, 16-29 August1944 
9. Seventh U.S. Army depots, 5-19 September 1944 
10. Medical supply depots in northern Italy, October 1944-May1945.
11. Medical supply depots in the United Kingdom, December 1943 
12. Supply points in marshaling areas, United Kingdom, May 1944 
13. Medical supply depots on the Normandy Beachhead and the Cotentin Peninsula, June-July 1944 
14. Medical supply depots operating in France and Belgium, August-November 1944 
15. First U.S. Army medical supply depots in France and Belgium, October-December 1944 
16. Third U.S. Army medical supply depots, October-December1944 
17. Seventh U.S. Army medical supply depots in northern France,October-December 1944
18. Ninth U.S. Army depot operations, September-December 1944 
19. Supply depot movement in the Battle of the Bulge, December1944 
20. First U.S. Army medical supply depots in Belgium andGermany, January-May 1945
21. Third U.S. Army medical supply depots in Germany,January-May 1945
22. Captured enemy supply dumps in Germany, February-April1945 
23. Operations of 33d Medical Depot Company, 1945 
24. Seventh U.S. Army medical supply depots in France andGermany, 1945 
25. Ninth and Fifteenth U.S. Army depot operations in northernEurope, 1945
26. Rear support depots, Belgium, France, and Germany,1944-45 
27. Occupation zones and medical depots in postwar Germany andAustria, 1945 
28. Supply routes to the Philippine Islands, 1941-42 
29. Medical supply depots and base sections in Australia, April1942 
30. Bases in Papua, New Guinea, 1942-43 
31. South Pacific supply points, 1942 
32. Supply points in Alaska, 1942 
33. Medical supply support on Guadalcanal 
34. Medical supply points, Bougainville and the South PacificArea, 1943-44 
35. Medical supply depots in Australia, 1943 
36. Medical supply support for the New Guinea operations, 1944 
37. Medical supply support for Operation CHRONICLE 
38. Medical supply in the New Georgia campaign, 5 September1943 
39. Medical supply support in the Attu campaign, 4 May 1943 
40. Medical supply on Kiska 
41. Medical supply support of the Bougainville campaign, 1943 
42. Operations in the mid-Pacific, 1943-44 
43. Medical supply depots on Leyte, 1944-45 
44. Medical supply facilities on Mindoro, 15 December 1944 
45. Medical support for the Luzon operation, January-June1945 
46. Medical supply depots at Subic Bay and the Manila Bay area,1945 
47. Medical supply depots in southern Luzon, 1945 
48. Medical supply in the southern Philippines, 1945 
49. Medical supply depots, CBI theater, 1942-43 
50. Medical supply depots, CBI theater, 1944 
51. Medical supply points on Okinawa, 1945
52. Bases supporting operations in Japan, 1945 
53. Manila base depot system, 1945 
54. Postwar medical supply system in Japan and Korea, 29September 1945 

Tables

Number 

1. Scarce materials saved by Medical Departmentconservation measures, 1942-43 
2. Medical supplies for U.S. forces in the United Kingdom fromBritish and American sources, 1942-44
3. Medical depots and medical depot sections in the UnitedKingdom, 31 December 1943 
4. Key depot system, United Kingdom, 1944 
5. Hospitals serviced by medical depots in the United Kingdom,December 1944 
6. United Kingdom depot status report, 15 January 1945 
7. Depots on the Continent, 1 November 1944 
8. Tonnage: Medical supply depots in Manila, April-September1945